A study by Lecturer in Criminology Dr Adam Snow has been featured in the national news, following findings that one in three motorists receives a fine each year.
The research, which was funded by the RAC Foundation, examined trends in the use of automated technology to regulate road traffic.
Dr Snow looked at fixed penalty notices and penalty charge notices issued between March 2015 and March 2016. He found that eight million parking fines are issued by councils, while bus lanes and junction boxes led to 2.5 million people receiving fines.
The figures show 12 million drivers receive a penalty notice each year, and authorities issue 33,000 penalty notices every day.
In the report, Dr Snow commented: “Automated enforcement promises much in terms of speed and cost efficiency for financially-squeezed police forces and councils. However, the driving public are entitled to ask for more weighty principles such as fairness and justice to be taken into consideration when confronted with potential wrong doing.
“Quite how those who ensure the safety of our roads through enforcement can provide both cost effectiveness and justice is a challenge that requires debate and engaged minds.
“I hope this report provides the start of that debate about the acceptability and appropriate place for automation in road traffic enforcement.”